Gynaecological cancers start in a woman’s reproductive system or genitals. They include cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer and vulvar cancer. Rare types of gynaecological cancer include cancers of the fallopian tubes and the placenta (pregnancy-related).
Types of gynaecological cancer
The more common types of gynaecological cancer are:
Cervical cancer develops when abnormal cells grow in the lining of the cervix. Australia’s National Cervical Screening Program and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine program have helped reduce the number of cases. Anyone with a cervix can get cervical cancer, including women, transgender men and intersex people.
Cervical cancer journey
Find out more about the treatment journey for cervical cancer, from diagnosis to survival.
Ovarian cancer occurs when cells in the ovaries start to grow abnormally. This can lead to one or more tumours developing in one or both ovaries. Ovarian cysts are different from ovarian cancer and are usually harmless and painless.
Uterine cancer is caused by the development of abnormal cells in the uterus. It is often referred to as endometrial cancer as this is a common form.
Uterine cancer journey
Find out more about the treatment journey for uterine cancer, from diagnosis to survival.
Vaginal cancer starts when abnormal cells develop in the vagina. Cervical screening tests can pick up early cell changes in the wall of the vagina.
Vaginal cancer journey
Find out more about the treatment journey for vaginal cancer, from diagnosis to survival.
Vulvar cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in any part of a woman’s external genitals. It most commonly starts in the labia minora (inner lips), labia majora (outer lips) or the area between the vagina and anus.
Vulvar cancer journey
Find out more about the treatment journey for vulvar cancer, from diagnosis to survival.
Radiation therapy may be offered in the early stages of cancer treatment, or after it has started to spread. There are different radiation therapy techniques which may be suitable for different cancer types at different stages.
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