Catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia

What is SVT?

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) affects up to one in 400 people. It is a common type of rapid heart racing, which is due to an abnormal electrical circuit travelling rapidly around your heart – usually at a rate of 150 to 250 beats per minute. These circuits generally involve the normal electrical tissue or fibres (the atrio-ventricular or AV node) and one or more abnormal fibres. Individuals with this type of tachycardia are usually born with these extra fibres (or pathways), even though the rapid heart racing may not become evident until the teen years or later in life.

Several different types of pathways exist. An electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained when your heart is racing, as well as an ECG obtained at normal times, may give a hint as to the type of abnormal electrical pathways you have. Most individuals who have these abnormal electrical pathways within their hearts have otherwise normal hearts and do not have problems with valves or coronary arteries.

The most common types of abnormal electrical pathways leading to these electrical circuits and tachycardia include:

A common condition where the normal electrical pathway (the AV node) has an extra fibre, and an electrical circuit may race around between the usual pathway and the extra fibre.

The circuit forms from electrical impulses travelling via the AV node and an abnormal extra pathway.

A rare condition, this is a special variant of AV re-entry where the extra electrical pathway that bridges the upper (atria) and the lower (ventricle) chamber of the heart has particular electrical properties that often make it possible to be seen on the ECG when the heart is in a normal rhythm.

Why perform catheter ablation?

Catheter ablation for both AV re-entry and AV node re-entry tachycardia is the treatment of choice for individuals with frequent arrhythmias, particularly those for whom drugs do not work or are poorly tolerated. The advent of catheter ablation as treatment for arrhythmias is useful for two reasons. Firstly, many individuals with supraventricular tachycardia require “lifelong” drug therapy to control attacks. With that comes the risk of side effects. Secondly, the procedure has a very high cure rate (approximately 95%) with a low risk of complications.

In order to cure the arrhythmias, special catheters (small, flexible wires with metal tips) are used. These catheters are placed into the heart under X-ray guidance. The catheters stimulate the heart and record electrical activity from within the heart.

In most cases, it is necessary to trigger an episode of tachycardia to determine its type and source. If the area of the heart responsible for the tachycardia can be identified, one of the catheters can be manipulated so the tip electrode is in contact with the abnormal tissue. Locating the target tissue is called mapping. During mapping, the ablation catheter is moved from spot to spot until the appropriate area is found. Mapping may take only minutes, but on occasions can take several hours.

Once the catheter is in the appropriate area, radiofrequency (RF) energy (also known as modified surgical cautery) is delivered via the ablation catheter. This heats and damages the tissue surrounding the catheter, potentially curing the tachycardia. Frequently, more than one area needs to be cauterised to fully eliminate the tachycardia. Following each RF delivery, retesting is performed to detect whether or not the tachycardia has been completely eliminated.

In experienced hands, 90 to 95% of cases of SVT can be cured with the procedure lasting an hour or two. In a small proportion of cases (approximately 5%), the cauterised area can recover, and may require and a second ablation procedure. In another small proportion of people, the area to be cauterised cannot be identified or is not accessible.

What should I expect?

Generally, patients are admitted to the hospital on the morning of the procedure. You will be taken to an Electrophysiology Laboratory (EP Lab) for the procedure. Medications to control your heart rhythm should generally be stopped two to four days prior to the procedure. Your cardiologist will let you know if this is the case. Since X-ray is required for the procedure, you must alert your doctor if you think you may be pregnant.

You will be given intravenous sedation or general anaesthetic. Local anaesthetic is placed in the skin using a small needle. Catheters may be placed in the right and/or left groin.

Through sheaths and under X-ray guidance the flexible EP catheters are advanced up the veins to the heart. There is very little sensation associated with the placement of these catheters. During the delivery of the RF energy there may be mild chest discomfort. Occasionally, multiple applications of electrical current may be required to destroy the abnormal fibre.

At the end of the procedure, all the catheters and sheaths will be removed. You will stay in bed for three to five hours to prevent bleeding at sites where the catheters were inserted. You will usually be discharged the next day.

The team performing the procedure includes the GenesisCare cardiologist, three catheter laboratory nurses, an anaesthetist and anaesthetic nurse, a radiographer, a cardiac scientist and a 3D mapping cardiac scientist.

Risks

The amount of tissue damaged in a typical ablation procedure is insignificant for overall heart pumping function. The scar tissue seems to remain stable over time and not cause problems even years later. Nonetheless, things can go awry during the procedure and occasionally complications can occur.

Possible complications include:

  1. Application of radiofrequency current close to the normal conduction system of the heart could produce heart block and necessitate implantation of a permanent pacemaker (<1% risk). This risk only applies if the abnormal pathway is close to your normal electrical conduction system (i.e. within a centimetre or less).

  2. A blood clot may form on the catheter that carries the radiofrequency current to the heart. The clot may dislodge and obstruct a blood vessel, which can cause a stroke, heart attack or injury to another organ (approx. one in 1000 to one in 5000 risk). This is usually only a risk if ablation is being performed on the left (arterial) side of the heart.

  3. In rare cases, the catheter could damage the heart valves or a coronary artery.

  4. Other rare complications reported in the literature include cardiac perforation (producing a hole in the heart wall), haemo- or pneumothorax (blood or air in the chest wall requiring tube drainage), damage to the femoral artery (one in 10000) and damage to the phrenic nerve (the nerve supplying the diaphragm).

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Albany

136-138 Lockyer Avenue, Albany, WA 6330

(08) 9480 3000

Albury Wodonga

Regional Cancer Centre, Corner of Borella Road and East Street, East Albury, NSW, 2640

(02) 6043 7800

Armadale (Hearts West Clinic)

3056 Albany Hwy, Suite 10, Armadale Hospital Specialist Centre, Armadale WA 6112

(08) 9391 1234

Augusta

Augusta Hospital, 11 Donovan Street, Augusta WA 6290

(08) 9480 3000

Balwyn

Balwyn Consulting Suites, 481 Whitehorse Rd, Balwyn VIC 3103

(03) 9813 7900

Base Hospital Bundaberg (Cardiology)

Cardiac Investigations Unit, Bundaberg Base Hospital, Bourbong Street, Bundaberg West, QLD, 4670

(07) 4199 7300

Beaudesert

Lavender House 37 William Street Beaudesert QLD 4284

(07) 3255 7200

Benowa

The Lung Centre, 144 Ashmore Rd, Benowa QLD 4217

(07) 5564 7775

Berwick (Cardiology)

Unit 2 / 11 Gloucester Avenue, Berwick VIC 3806

(03) 8794 2200

Berwick (Oncology)

St John Of God Berwick Specialist Centre, 55 Kangan Drive, Berwick VIC 3806, Australia

(03) 8794 2700

Broken Hill

Thomas Street, Broken Hill, NSW, 2880

8202 6600

Buderim (oncology)

10 King Street, Buderim QLD 4556, Australia

(07) 5374 8100

Buderim Private Hospital

Buderim Private Hospital, 12 Elsa Wilson Drive, Buderim QLD 4556

1800 155 225

Bunbury (Cardiology)

Suite 21, St John of God Hospital, Southwest Health Campus, Corner of Roberston Drive & Bussell Highway, WA, 6230

(08) 9720 3400

Bunbury (Oncology)

South West Health Campus, Corner of Bussell Hwy & Roberston Drive, Bunbury, WA 6230

(08) 9726 6400

Bunbury (Sleep Medicine)

Suite 21, St John of God Hospital, Southwest Health Campus, (Cnr Robertson Drive & Bussell Hwy), Bunbury WA 6230

(08) 9720 3403

Bundaberg (Oncology)

Bundaberg, Mater Hospital (Oncology), 313 Bourbong Street, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670

(07) 4154 9900

Bundaberg (Sleep Medicine)

Suite 3, Entrance 1, 72 Barolin Street, Bundaberg, QLD 4670

(07) 4199 7080

Bundaberg West

Mater Misericordiae Hospital, 313 Bourbong Street, Bundaberg West, QLD, 4670

(07) 4199 7080

Bundoora

Health and Wellness Centre Level 1, Suites 8-10, 20 Scholar Drive, Bundoora, VIC, 3083

(03) 8467 5900

Busselton (Cardiology)

19 Albert Street, Busselton WA, Australia

(08) 9751 6000

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19 Albert Street, Busselton WA 6280, Australia

9720 3400

Cabrini (Gandel Wing)

Cabrini Hospital Malvern, Level B4, Gandel Wing, 183 Wattletree Road, Malvern, VIC 3144

(03) 9597 6900

Calvary Central Districts Hospital

Calvary Central Districts Hospital, Jarvis Road, Elizabeth Vale SA 5112, Australia

(08) 7285 6400

Capalaba

19/16 Weippin Street, Cleveland QLD, Australia

(07) 3858 8690

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Hervey Bay Hospital, Corner of Nissen Street & Urraween Road, Urraween QLD 4655

(07) 4303 4351

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Chermside Medical Complex, Lower Ground Floor, 956 Gympie Road, Chermside QLD, 4032

(07) 3917 4400

Clare

Old North Road, Clare, SA 5453

(08) 8841 3777

Clayfield

Oriel Place, Suite 3, Level 1 531 Sandgate Road Clayfield QLD 4011

(07) 3648 2500

Cockburn (Cardiology)

Cockburn Health & Community Centre, Level 1, Suite 11, 11 Wentworth Parade, Success WA 6164

(08) 6332 2300

Cockburn (Sleep)

Cockburn Health & Community Centre, Level 1, Suite 11, 11 Wentworth Parade, Success WA 6164

(08) 9233 5200

Concord

375A-377 Concord Road Concord West NSW 2138

(02) 8399 9600

Denmark

Denmark Health Service, 50 Scotsdale Road, Denmark WA, Australia

(08) 9480 3000

Doncaster East

Suite 1, 1008 Doncaster Road, Doncaster East VIC 3109

(03) 8809 6200

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Unit 4, 60 Arnisdale Road, Duncraig, WA, 6023

(08) 9246 5800

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Dunn Bay Road, Dunsborough WA 6281, Australia

(08) 6332 2313

East Melbourne

Level 5, 126 Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002

(03) 9813 7950

Emerald

Central Highlands Healthcare Ltd. Trading as Emerald Medical Group Lot 1, Pilot Farm Road, Emerald QLD 4720

(07) 3858 8690

Epping Medical Centre

Epping Medical Centre, Ground Floor, 230 Cooper Street, Epping, VIC, 3076

(03) 9409 8000

Fiona Stanley Hospital

Discovery Way Murdoch University, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia

1300 977 062

Flinders Private Hospital

Flinders Private Hospital, Level 2, 1 Flinders Drive, Bedford Park, SA 5042

(08) 8179 5500

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Western Private Hospital, 1 Marion Street, Footscray, VIC 3011

(03) 9319 3200

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Frankston Private Hospital, 5 Susono Way, Frankston VIC, 3199

(03) 9781 8200

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Fraser Coast, St Stephen’s Private Hospital, 1 Medical Place, Urraween, QLD, 4655

(07) 4120 6600

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17 Medical Pl, Urraween QLD 4655, Australia

(07) 4120 6600

Frenchs Forest

Suite 3, Level 1, Building 1, 49 Frenchs Forest Road, Frenchs Forest NSW 2086

(02) 8030 6700

Friendly Society Private Hospital (FSPH) Bundaberg

Floor 1, 19-23 Bingera Street, Bundaberg QLD 4670

(07) 4199 7300

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1 Murray Street, Gawler , SA 5112

(08) 8202 6600

Gladstone (Cardiology)

Mater Hospital (Outpatients Department), 50 Rosella Street, Gladstone, QLD, 4680

(07) 3858 8690

Gladstone Mater Misericordiae Hospital (Sleep Medicine)

Mater Misericordiae Hospital, 50 Rosella St, Gladstone QLD 4680

(07) 4199 7080

Greenslopes

Ramsay Specialist Centre Suite 212, Level 2 Newdegate Street, Greenslopes, QLD, 4120

(07) 3255 7200

Gympie

Gympie Specialist and Diagnostic Centre, 74 - 76 Channon Street, Gympie QLD 4570

(07) 5390 3700

Heidelberg

Suite 1, Warringal Private Hospital, 216 Burgundy Street, Heidelberg VIC 3084

(03) 9455 4800

Hollywood Private Hospital

Hollywood Private Hospital, Diagnostic Nuclear Imaging, Monash Ave, Nedlands WA 6009

(08) 9438 8500

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Waratah Private Hospital, Level 6, 31 Dora Street, Hurstville, NSW, 2220

(02) 8568 7600

Jimboomba

Jimboomba Medical Centre Shop 14, Jimboomba Shopping Centre Mt Lindesay Highway Jimboomba, Qld, 4280

(07) 3255 7200

John Flynn Private Hospital Tugun (Sleep Medicine)

John Flynn Private Hospital, 42 Inland Drive, Tugun QLD 4224

Joondalup – Shenton House (Cardiology)

Level 3, Shenton House, 57 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup, WA 6027

(08) 9400 6161

Joondalup – Shenton House (Oncology)

Shenton House, Level 3, 57 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup, WA 6027

1300 977 062

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Level 2 & 3, 57 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup WA 6027

(08) 9233 5200

Joondalup Health Campus

Suite 103, Specialist Medical Centre West, Grand Blvd & Shenton Ave, Joondalup, WA, 6027

(08) 9233 5200

Kadina

77-79 Port Road, Kadina SA 5554, Australia

(08) 8202 6600

Kalamunda

Kalamunda Specialist Centre, 37 Elizabeth Street, Kalamunda, WA

(08) 9480 3000

Karratha

Karratha Health Campus Outpatients Department 62 Balmoral Road KARRATHA WA 6714

(08) 9144 7777

Kingaroy

Lady Bjelke-Petersen Community Hospital (formerly South Burnett Private Hospital), 31 Markwell Street, Kingaroy QLD 4610

(07) 3858 8690

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Suite 1, Tennyson Centre, 520 South Road, Kurralta Park, SA 5037

(08) 8375 3200

Langwarrin

Langwarrin Suites 1 & 2, 35 Cranbourne-Frankston Road, Langwarrin VIC 3910

(03) 8769 5800

Leabrook

284 Kensington Road, Leabrook, SA 5068

(08) 8202 6600

Lilydale

Lilydale Private Consulting Suites, 475 Swansea Rd, Lilydale, VIC, 3140

(03) 9735 4288

Mackay Mater Hospital

76 Willetts Rd, North Mackay QLD 4740, Australia

1800 155 225

Mackay Rehabilitation Hospital

Mackay Rehabilitation Hospital, 57 Norris Road, North Mackay, QLD, 4740

1800 155 225

Macquarie University Hospital

Hospital Building, Suite 1, Level B2, 3 Technology Place, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109

(02) 9812 3220

Mandurah (Cardiology)

Unit 3/35 Minilya Pkwy, Greenfields WA 6210, Australia

(08) 9584 6500

Mandurah (Oncology)

Unit 3/35 Minilya Parkway, Greenfields WA 6210

(08) 9559 2900

Mandurah (Sleep Medicine)

Unit 3/35 Minilya Pkwy, Greenfields WA 6210, Australia

(08) 9233 5200

Manjimup (Cardiology)

Warren District Hospital, 1 Hospital Avenue, Manjimup WA 6258

(08) 9720 3400

Manjimup (Sleep Medicine)

Warren District Hospital, 1 Hospital Ave, Manjimup WA 6258

(08) 9720 3400

Margaret River Hospital

17 Farrelly Street, Margaret River WA, Australia

(08) 9720 3400

Margaret River Surgery (Cardiology)

Margaret River Surgery, 1 Station Road, Margaret River WA, Australia

9720 3400

Margaret River Surgery (Sleep)

Margaret River Surgery, 1 Station Road, Margaret River WA, Australia

9720 3400

Maryborough

St Stephen's Medical Centre Suite 2, 166 John Street Maryborough QLD 4650

(07) 4303 4300

Mater Brisbane

Mater Private Clinic Suite 5.02 & 5.11, Level 5 550 Stanley Street South Brisbane QLD 4101

(07) 3360 7100

Mater Hospital, Sydney (Oncology)

The Mater Hospital, 25 Rocklands road, North Sydney, NSW

(02)9458 8050

Midland

Midland Medical Specialist Care, 23 The Crescent, Midland, WA 6056

(08) 9480 3000

Modbury

979 North East Road, Modbury, SA, 5092

(08) 8202 6600

Moe

Clearview Radiology Moe, 34 George Street, Moe VIC 3825, Australia

(03) 8794 2200

Mount Barker

Unit 3, 22 Mann Street, Mount Barker, SA 5251

(08) 8202 6600

Mount Ommaney

Mount Ommaney Medical Centre Shop 6/171 Dandenong Road Mt Ommaney QLD 4074

(07) 3725 3900

Mulgrave

Mulgrave Private Hospital, Suite 8, Churchill Consulting Suites, Blanton Drive, Mulgrave, VIC, 3170

(03) 8793 3800

Murdoch (Cardiology)

St John of God Wexford Medical Centre, Level 4, Suite 68-72, 3 Barry Marshall Parade, Murdoch, WA 6150

(08) 6332 2300

Murdoch (Hearts West Clinic)

Suite 59, SJOG Medical Centre Barry Marshall ParadeMurdoch WA 6150

Murdoch (Sleep Medicine)

Suite 68-72 Wexford Medical Centre, Level 4, 3 Barry Marshall Parade, Murdoch WA 6150

(08) 9233 5200

Murray Bridge

6 Verdun Street, Murray Bridge, SA, 5253

(08) 8202 6600

Nambour (Satellite clinic for Buderim)

10 Mapleton - Nambour Road, Nambour QLD, Australia

(07) 5374 8100

Nedlands (Cardiology)

Suite 20/21 Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Nedlands WA

(08) 6389 9100

Nedlands (Sleep Medicine)

Suite 20/21 Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Nedlands WA 6009

(08) 9233 5200

Newcastle

Lake Macquarie Private Hospital, 36 Pacific Highway, Gateshead, NSW, 2290

(02) 4918 4500

North Melbourne

Lake Imaging Specialist and Research Centre 14-20 Blackwood Street North Melbourne 3051

(03) 9813 7950

North Street Medical Centre

St Andrew’s Hospital, North Street, Spring Hill, QLD, 4000

(07) 3832 1717

Nuriootpa

Nuriootpa Medical Centre 6 Memorial Avenue

(08) 8202 6600

Pakenham

Level 2, 2-9 Village Way, Lakeside Square Medical Precinct, Pakenham VIC 3810

(03) 8793 3800

Parkville

Level 4, Suite 22, Melbourne Private Medical Centre, Royal Parade, Parkville VIC 3052

(03) 9813 7950

Perth (Hearts West Clinic)

Suite 53/ 146 Mounts Bay Road, Perth WA 6000 Australia

Perth Mount (Cardiology)

Suite 3, 140 Mounts Bay Road, Perth, WA 6000

(08) 9480 3000

Perth Mount (Sleep Medicine)

Suite 3 Mount Medical Centre, Level 3, 140 Mounts Bay Road, Perth WA 6000

(08) 9233 5200

Pindara (Oncology)

Pindara Specialist Suites Suite 4.07, Level 4, 29 Carrara Street, Benowa QLD 4214

Pindara Private Hospital

Pindara Private Hospital, Allchurch Avenue, Benowa QLD 4217

Port Hedland

Hedland Health Campus, Outpatient Department, Port Hedland WA 6721

(08) 9174 1380

Pulse Oceanside Medical

Pulse Oceanside Medical, Suite 402, 11 Eccles Boulevard, Birtinya, QLD 4575

(07) 5322 5900

Ringwood (Cardiology)

Level 2, 50 New Street, Ringwood VIC 3134

(03) 9210 8300

Ringwood (Oncology)

Ringwood Private Hospital, 36 Mount Dandenong Road, Ringwood East VIC 3135

(03) 8870 3300

RiverCity Private Hospital

RiverCity Private Hospital, Level 4, 401 Milton Road, Auchenflower, QLD, 4066

Rockhampton (Cardiology)

Mater Hospital (Outpatients Department) 31 Ward Street Rockhampton QLD 4700

(07) 3858 8690

Rockhampton (Oncology)

Rockhampton Hospital, Lower Ground Floor, Canning Street, Rockhampton, QLD, 4700

(07) 4932 5000

Rockingham

Suite 1/11 Council Avenue, Rockingham, WA 6168

(08) 9528 3013

Rockingham (Hearts West Clinic)

Elanora Dr, Rockingham General Hospital, Cooloongup WA 6168

Roma

Vital Health, 20 Quintin Street, Roma QLD 4455

(07) 3858 8690

Shepparton

124 Corio St, Shepparton VIC 3630, Australia

(03) 5825 9700

South Coast Radiology

103 Nerang St, Southport QLD 4215

(08) 9438 8500

Southport

Premion Place, 39 White St, Southport QLD 4215

(07) 5552 1400

Springfield

Priority Health Orion Shopping Centre, 1st Floor, 1 Main Street, Springfield QLD 4300

(07) 3858 8690

St Andrew's Hospital (Oncology)

St Andrew's Hospital, 352 South Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000

(08) 8228 6700

St Andrew's Medical Centre

St Andrew's Medical Centre Clinic, Level 2. 321 South Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000

(08) 8202 6644

St Andrew's Toowoomba

St Andrew's Hospital Toowoomba, 280 North Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350

St Leonards

Level 1, 38 Pacific Highway, St Leonards NSW 2065

(02) 8037 4100

St Stephen's Hospital Hervey Bay (Sleep Medicine)

St Stephen's Hospital, 1 Medical Place, Urraween Fraser Coast, QLD, Australia

(07) 4199 7080

St Vincent's Clinic, Sydney

Level A, 438 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010

(02) 8302 5400

St Vincent's Melbourne

St Vincent's Hospital, Basement Level, Building C, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, VIC, 3065

(03) 9427 6500

St Vincent's Toowoomba (Cardiology)

St Vincent's Private Hospital, Toowoomba, Scott Street, Toowoomba City QLD 4350

(07) 3858 8600

St Vincent's Toowoomba (Sleep Medicine)

St Vincent's Private Hospital, Scott Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350

Sunshine Coast (Cardiology)

Suites 14 & 15, Sunshine Coast University Private Hospital, 3 Doherty Street, Birtinya QLD 4575

(07) 5390 3700

Sunshine Coast University Private Hospital

Sunshine Coast University Private Hospital Suite 20/3 Doherty St, Birtinya QLD, 4575

(07) 5437 9788

Surrey Hills

Union Road Specialists Centre, 203 Union Road, Surrey Hills, VIC, 3127

(03) 9813 7900

Tugun (Oncology)

John Flynn Private Hospital, 42 Inland Drive, Tugun QLD 4224

(07) 5507 3600

Unley Road

Unley Road Clinic, 313 Unley Road, Malvern, SA, 5061

(08) 8202 6600

Urraween (Cardiology & Sleep)

Level 1, Suite 10 St Stephen's Private Hospital, 1 Medical Place, Urraween QLD 4655

(07) 4303 4300

Vermont South

Vermont Consulting Clinic, Vermont South Medical Centre, Level 3, Suite 3-5a, 645-647 Burwood Hwy, Vermont South, VIC, 3133

(03) 9210 8300

Wallaroo

Ernest Terrace, Wallaroo, SA 5556

82026600

Wembley

24 Salvado Road, Wembley WA, Australia

1300 977 062

Wesley Hospital Auchenflower (Cardiology)

Level 5, Suite 91 Sandford Jackson Building 30 Chasely Street Auchenflower QLD 4066

(07) 3858 8650

Wesley Hospital Auchenflower (Sleep Medicine)

The Wesley Hospital, Auchenflower, QLD, 4066

1800 155 225

Wesley Medical Centre (Oncology)

The Wesley Medical Centre, 1/40 Chasely St Auchenflower, Brisbane, QLD, 4066

Westside Private Hospital (Cardiology)

Westside Private Hospital, Suite 309, Level 3, 32 Morrow Street, Taringa, QLD, 4068

(07) 3022 7850

Whittlesea

Whittlesea Specialist Centre, 79-81 Church Street, Whittlesea VIC 3757

(03) 8467 5900

Yokine (Cardiology)

Royal Street Specialist Centre, Cnr Royal Street & Wanneroo Road, Yokine, WA 6060

0894803000

Yokine (Sleep Medicine)

Royal Street Specialist Centre, Cnr Royal Street & Wanneroo Rd, Yokine WA 6060

(08) 9233 5200