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Genitourinary cancer

Genitourinary cancer can affect:

  • Kidneys
  • Bladder
  • Ureters (tubes that connect other organs in this area)
  • Urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside)
  • Male genitalia
  • Prostate

In women, cancers that develop in the ovaries, the uterus, the cervix, or the vagina are in a separate category of cancers called gynaecological cancers.

Types of genitourinary cancers

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer forms on urothelial cells that line the tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder as well as in the bladder itself.

• Cancer can develop when the DNA in the cells is damaged by waste chemicals in the urine. Smoking is the biggest risk factor.

• Most cancers are found in the bladder, where the urine has the longest contact with the lining urothelial cells. This can cause internal bleeding.

• Most bladder cancers are diagnosed early before they spread. They can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Symptoms
• Blood in the urine (haematuria)
• Bladder changes
• Pain in the lower part of the tummy or back which is less common

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers. It’s rare before the age of 50, and the risk increases with age.

The kidneys help to remove waste products from the body. They also help to control blood formation and fluid balances.

If it’s diagnosed early enough, and hasn’t spread, kidney cancer can often be cured.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer develops in the testes, part of a man’s reproductive system. It’s very rare before puberty and after age 65.

Testes have two functions:
• To produce sperm for reproduction
• To make male hormone

It’s been discovered that all men who develop testicular cancer are born with an abnormality on their 12th chromosome.

• There are two main types of testicular cancer – seminoma and non-seminoma – which develop from germ cells in the testicles. There are also different subtypes of testicular cancer.

• Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the testicle that has the cancer.

If you have testicular cancer, you may also need chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Both of these can be used to treat even advanced cases that have spread into other areas of the body.

Treatments we offer

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

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