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Genitourinary cancer treatment and diagnosis

Genitourinary cancer treatment at GenesisCare

Genitourinary cancer can affect:

  • Kidneys
  • Bladder
  • Ureters (tubes that connect other organs in this area)
  • Urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside)
  • Male genitalia
  • Prostate

In women, cancers that develop in the ovaries, the uterus, the cervix, or the vagina are in a separate category of cancers called gynaecological cancers.

Types of genitourinary cancers

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer forms on urothelial cells that line the tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder as well as in the bladder itself. Most cancers are found in the bladder, where the urine has the longest contact with the lining urothelial cells. This can cause internal bleeding.

Most bladder cancers are diagnosed early before they spread. They can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

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Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers. It’s rare before the age of 50, and the risk increases with age.

The kidneys help to remove waste products from the body. They also help to control blood formation and fluid balances.

If it’s diagnosed early enough, and hasn’t spread, kidney cancer can often be cured.

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Penile cancer

There are different types of penile cancer. The most common is squamous cell penile cancer. It usually develops under the foreskin in uncircumcised men. It can also begin on the penis head (glans).

There are three other types of penile cancer; Adenocarcinoma, Carcinoma in situ (CIS) & melanoma of the penis.

It’s more common if you’re over 50.

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Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer develops in the testes, part of a man’s reproductive system. It’s very rare before puberty and after age 65.

It’s been discovered that all men who develop testicular cancer are born with an abnormality on their 12th chromosome.

If you have testicular cancer, you may also need chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Both of these can be used to treat even advanced cases that have spread into other areas of the body.

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Urethral cancer

Cancer that begins in the urethra is very rare but becomes more likely as you get older. It can spread quickly to other areas of the body.

The most common kind of urethral cancer is called squamous cell carcinoma. It develops near the bladder in women and the lining of the urethra inside the penis in men.

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Ureter cancer

Cancer of the renal pelvis (small area in the centre of the kidney that the ureter arises from) and ureter are very rare.

They are considered bladder cancers rather than kidney cancers. Higher incidence in men than women. The incidence rises from the age of 65 years and is even rarer under this age.

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Treatments

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

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