Predicting Recurrence and Progression in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review on the Performance of Risk Stratification Models



Several classifications have been reported to stratify non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in risk groups according to the probability of recurrence and progression.



The existing classifications show poor discrimination capability for recurrence and possibly helpful discrimination capability for progression in NMIBC patients. These results highlight the unmet need to develop novel accurate risk models for patients with NMIBC, which could be improved with the combination of clinicopathological and molecular information.