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Non-melanoma cancer treatment and diagnosis

Non-melanoma cancer

Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer type in the U.S. Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are a group of skin cancers that develop in the upper layers of your skin. Although there are several types of NMSC, there are two main types: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC makes up around 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancer cases whereas SCC is less common.

Chapter 1

Overview

Lack of sun protection is one of the highest risks of developing NMSC.

The most common risk factor of developing NMSC is ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through tanning and inadequate sun protection Those at higher risk also typically have fair skin, a history of ionizing radiation (x-rays, gamma rays), a suppressed immune system or a history of skin cancer.

NMSC is often highly treatable.

Despite the high occurrence of NMSC, almost all can be successfully treated. Unlike many other cancers, there’s a low risk of NMSC spreading to other parts of the body. This means early diagnosis and treatment can result in a positive outcome for most people.

Treatment focused on you.

We understand that being diagnosed with cancer can be overwhelming – we are here to help you navigate this journey. At GenesisCare, we specialize in the latest technologies and continually evaluate the latest skin cancer treatments so we can offer the most up-to-date options to every patient without delay. We offer treatments that can improve your skin cancer prognosis, manage the disease and help minimize any discomfort and pain. You and your doctor will work together to decide on the most appropriate treatment plan for you, tailored to your needs.

Chapter 2

Diagnostics

Typically, NMSC are associated with a mole or growth that changes in size, shape and color, a new growth on the skin, or a sore that does not heal. Your physician may want to run diagnostics if there is any concern of malignancy.

Following a physical examination, NMSCs are usually diagnosed by a biopsy. In some instances, a biopsy can remove all cancer tissue and no further treatment is required. If necessary, imaging scans such as CT and MRI may be used for a diagnosis. You may also have advanced diagnostic tests throughout treatment to assess effectiveness and how your cancer is responding.

Find your nearest GenesisCare center to find out what diagnostic tests and scans are available in your local area. Whatever your outcome, our expert team will support you throughout your treatment journey.

Rapid Access Gynaecology Clinic
Chapter 3

Surgery

In many cases, surgery is performed for low-risk NMSC that are not in cosmetically sensitive areas. Our team of surgeons are specially trained and experienced in the removal of tumors containing cancerous and benign (non-cancerous) cells. There are different procedures used for skin cancer surgery and your surgeon will recommend the most appropriate one for you depending on what type of skin cancer you have and how advanced it is.

Cryosurgery (cryotherapy)

Cryosurgery uses extreme cold substances (usually liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide) to freeze and destroy small BCCs and SCCs. This often performed by applying a cold gas on the tumor or placing a very cold probe against it. The cold substances freeze the tumor site and is frozen again after thawing. This may be repeated two or three times during the same treatment session with the goal of destroying the cancerous tissue.

Curettage and electrodesiccation

During this procedure, your surgeon removes the cancer by scraping away layers of cancer cells using an instrument with a circular blade, called a curette. Once this is complete, an electric needle is used to destroy any remaining cancer cells. The process is then often repeated once or twice during the same treatment session.

Excisional surgery

Excisional surgery involves cutting out the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of healthy skin. This procedure is performed under local anesthetic and the sample is looked at under a microscope after to ensure no cancer cells were left behind at the edges of the skin that was removed.

Mohs surgery

Mohs surgery, also known as Mohs micrographic surgery, is a technique that causes minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue and only removes the skin containing the cancer. The visible tumor is removed, and your surgeon will then remove a layer of the skin and analyze it to see if it contains any cancerous cells. This process is continued layer-by-layer until no more cancer cells are found.

Chapter 4

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is often most appropriate for NMSC where surgery is contraindicated, if the cancer is in a cosmetically sensitive area, or as an additional treatment for advanced disease. At GenesisCare, we specialize in advanced radiation therapy techniques, with treatment plans focused on minimizing side effects and putting your needs at the forefront.

Our latest-generation machines are built to deliver highly targeted radiation beams. The accuracy of these treatments, together with the expertise of our teams, means that we can often complete a course of radiation therapy in a shorter amount of time – so you can spend more time doing the things you love.

Our NMSC cancer treatments include external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), where radiation is delivered from outside the body, and internal radiation therapy (IRT), where the radiation dose is given via a source implanted within the body. The type of skin cancer treatment your radiation oncologist recommends will depend on your diagnosis, if the cancer has spread to other parts of your body, your general health and personal preferences.

 

 

Radiation therapy for skin cancer

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

IMRT is an advanced external beam radiation therapy technique where the beams of radiation are precisely shaped to exactly match your tumor, which limits radiation exposure to  adjacent healthy tissues.

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

VMAT is an advanced form of IMRT that directs beams of radiation in an arc across the treatment area. VMAT very accurately target areas of cancer and can be used to give a consistent dose to large treatment areas, while limiting radiation exposure to surrounding areas of the body.

High-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

HDR brachytherapy is an internal radiation therapy that delivers radioactive pellets to the tumor site through small plastic tubes called catheters or an implant. This is usually done in one session and is removed after 20 minutes.

Chapter 5

Medical oncology

At GenesisCare, we offer a wide range of drug therapies and the latest anti-cancer drugs for skin cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.

Chemotherapy for NMSC

Chemotherapy refers to drugs that destroy cancer cells. Our expert teams may recommend chemotherapy before or after other treatments, or on its own. It can be applied as a cream directly onto the skin (topical chemotherapy), administered intravenously, or prescribed in the form of a tablet.

The type of chemotherapy you’ll receive will depend on how advanced your skin cancer is. If you have skin cancer that has spread to other parts of your body, chemotherapy may help control its growth, relieve symptoms and improve your skin cancer prognosis.

Red light treatment for NMSC

Red light treatment, or photodynamic therapy (PDT), is a type of chemotherapy. These drugs are activated by a light source such as a laser. When the light source is focused on the tumor, the drugs are triggered and kill the cancer cells. PDT is only used for early-stage skin cancer.

Targeted therapy for NMSC

Targeted therapy, also known as precision medicine, is a newer type of treatment that ‘targets’ cancer cells without affecting normal healthy cells. Targeted therapy seeks, attacks and blocks cellular activity that cancer depends on to survive and grow. Targeted therapies help determine what DNA mutation is driving a cancer, based off your individual genomic and genetic makeup. Types of targeted therapy for skin cancer include:

  • Cancer growth inhibitors – some advanced or recurrent basal cell carcinomas have abnormal proteins that help the cancer grow. Cancer growth inhibitors target these proteins to shrink the tumor.
  • EGFR inhibitors – squamous cell skin cancer cells can have too much of the EGFR protein which helps them grow. EGFR inhibitors target this protein and can shrink the cancer.

Immunotherapy for NMSC

Cancer cells rapidly divide out of control unlike normal, healthy cells, and often are able to hide from the immune system. Immunotherapy helps your body’s own immune system recognize and fight the cancer. Checkpoint inhibitors are an effective immunotherapy against advanced squamous cell carcinomas, blocking the signals that stop the immune system from attacking the cancerous cells.

Chapter 6

Why choose GenesisCare?

GenesisCare offers access to the latest technologies, advanced treatments and personalized care that’s tailored to the individual without delay.

Cancer care is constantly evolving, and we offer the world’s latest evidence-based treatments that have been shown to benefit patients. By working together closely, our multidisciplinary teams of oncologists, surgeons, radiation therapists and other healthcare specialists provide care that’s focused on you, not just your cancer, so you receive the best possible outcomes.

Our goal is to help you navigate through your cancer journey in the most positive way possible. That’s why as well as offering advanced and innovative treatment options, we also provide you with support and resources for your cancer journey - including advice about nutrition and exercise, expert help for managing side effects and information on local support groups.

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