Causes of uterus cancer

Risk factors include genetics, being nulliparous (not had children), being overweight/obese, diabetes, lack of physical activity, hormone replacement therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS, polyps, Parkinson’s disease and breast cancer patients who have been taking tamoxifen long term.

 
Longer than average oestrogen exposure, therefore an early menarche and/or late menopause will increase risk. Some oral contraceptives reduce the risk.

Symptoms of uterus cancer

Post-menopausal bleeding Irregular bleeding in pre-menopausal women.

Heavier periods

Blood stained or watery vagina discharge.

Pain/discomfort in pelvis, legs or back.

Pain/discomfort during sex.

Tests and diagnosis

Tests for uterus cancer may include:

  • Physical examination (including internal)
  • Blood tests
  • Ultrasound scan (transvaginal)
  • Biopsy- tissue samples will be taken for analysis (there are several different ways this may be carried out)

Treatments we offer

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

Search for a centre near you

Maidstone

17 Kings Hill Avenue, Kings Hill, West Malling, ME19 4UA

maidstone.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Birmingham

Little Aston Hall Drive, Sutton Coldfield, B74 3BF

birmingham.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Nottingham

The Park Centre for oncology, Sherwood Lodge Drive, Burntstump Country Park, Nottingham, NG5 8RX

nottingham.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Portsmouth

Bartons Road, Havant, PO9 5NA

portsmouth.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Guildford

BMI St Martha Oncology Centre, 46 Harvey Road, Guildford, GU1 3LX

guildford.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Southampton

Spire Hospital, Chalybeate Close, Southampton, SO16 6UY

southampton.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Chelmsford

Springfield Cancer Centre, Lawn Lane, Chelmsford, CM1 7GU

chelmsford.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Elstree

Unit 710, Centennial Park, Centennial Avenue, Elstree, Borehamwood, WD6 3SZ

elstree.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Oxford

Sandy Lane West, Peters Way, Oxford, OX4 6LB

oxford.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Milton Keynes

Sunrise Parkway, Linford Wood East, Milton Keynes, MK14 6LS

Miltonkeynes.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Newmarket

The Oaks, Fordham Road, Newmarket, CB8 7XN

newmarket.enquiries@genesiscare.com

Windsor

69 Alma Road, Windsor, SL4 3HD

windsor.enquiries@genesiscare.com

 

Primary brain tumours

 
Malignant brain tumours are rare in adults with around 5,000 new cases a year diagnosed in the UK, accounting for approximately 2% of all new cancer cases (Other brain tumours may be confirmed as benign and some are undiagnosed due to their position preventing a biopsy).

Higher incidence in men, male to female ratio is 1.5:1. Adult brain tumours can occur at any age, the incidence rises from the age of 30 with the highest incidence being between 50 and 70 years of age. Most of these arise in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebrum, 86% are gliomas (includes astrocytomas, ependymomas, oligodendroblastomas and mixed gliomas).
 

 
 
Risk factors and causes are not well understood but radiation is recognised as a cause and radiotherapy for primary brain tumours is associated with a 55% increased risk of further brain tumours.

Risk factors include some genetic conditions such as neurofibromatosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a family history of CNS tumours, diabetes in females, Parkinson’s disease and HIV infection or AIDS. (Secondary brain tumours have spread from
tumours elsewhere in the body e.g. lung).

The brain-main parts are:

 

  • The cerebrum (two halves with four lobes on each side- frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital)
  • The cerebellum
  • The brain stem
  • The pituitary gland

CNS

Symptoms of CNS tumours

Headaches

Nausea and vomiting

Drowsiness

Seizures

Other symptoms may be related to the functions of the area of the brain where the tumour has developed.

Frontal lobe: changes in personality and intellect; uncoordinated walking or weakness of one side of the body; loss of smell; occasional speech difficulties.

Parietal lobe: difficulty speaking or understanding words; problems with writing, reading or doing simple calculations; difficulty coordinating certain movements, and finding your way around; numbness or weakness on one side of the body.

Temporal lobe: seizures, which may cause strange sensations: a feeling of fear or intense familiarity (déjà vu), strange smells or blackouts; speech difficulties; memory problems.

Occipital lobe: loss of vision to one eye, which the person may not notice at first and may sometimes be discovered during routine eye tests.

Cerebellum: lack of coordination; slurred speech (dysarthia); unsteadiness; flickering involuntary movement of the eyes (nystagmus); vomiting and neck stiffness.

Brain stem: unsteadiness and an uncoordinated walk; facial weakness, a one-sided smile or drooping eyelid; double vision; difficulty speaking and swallowing; vomiting or headache just after waking (this is rare). Symptoms may appear gradually. Meninges – headaches, sickness and problems with sight and movement.

Pituitary gland: the pituitary gland produces lots of different hormones so a tumour in the gland can cause a variety of symptoms including: irregular periods; infertility; weight gain; lethargy; high blood pressure; diabetes; mood swings; and enlarged hands and feet. A tumour in the pituitary gland can also cause pressure on the nerves to the eyes, causing tunnel vision.

Tests and diagnosis

  • Physical examination (will include neurological test, checking muscle strength, reflexes, sensation, eye tests and hearing tests)
  • Blood tests
  • CT scans
  • Brain MRI scan
  • PET/SPECT scan
  • Surgical biopsy (surgery may be to remove a sample of brain tissue to enable analysis followed by further surgery or in some cases the intention of the initial surgery may be to remove part or all of the tumour)
  • Lumbar puncture
  • Neuroendoscopy

Treatments we cover

Radiotherapy, also called radiation therapy, kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy, also called radiation therapy, kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer.

Breasts are made of fat with connective and glandular tissue divided into lobes. A network of milk ducts spreads from the lobes to the nipple.

Breast cancer happens when these cells begin to grow abnormally and multiply quickly, forming a tumour.
 

 Both women and men can get breast cancer, but it’s rarer in men.

The risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer by age 85 is 1 in 8 for women and 1 in 631 for men.

Different types of breast cancer

Non-invasive means the cancer cells haven’t spread from their original location.

• Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – in DCIS, cancer cells are found within the milk ducts of the breast
• Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) – in LCIS, abnormal cells are found within breast lobules – but it’s not cancer. LCIS increases the risk of developing cancer, although most women with this condition won’t go on to develop breast cancer

‘Invasive’ means the cancer cells have spread to nearby tissue.

• Early breast cancer – in early breast cancer, cancer cells have spread from the ducts or lobules into nearby breast tissue. The cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes in the armpit. The most common types are invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)

• Locally advanced breast cancer – in locally advanced breast cancer, the cancer has spread to other areas nearby, such as the chest (including the skin, muscles and bones of the chest) and lymph nodes

Secondary, metastatic or advanced breast cancer means that the cancer cells have spread from the breast to other areas of the body, such as the bones, liver or lungs

Non-invasive means the cancer cells haven’t spread from their original location.

• Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – in DCIS, cancer cells are found within the milk ducts of the breast
• Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) – in LCIS, abnormal cells are found within breast lobules – but it’s not cancer. LCIS increases the risk of developing cancer, although most women with this condition won’t go on to develop breast cancer

‘Invasive’ means the cancer cells have spread to nearby tissue.

• Early breast cancer – in early breast cancer, cancer cells have spread from the ducts or lobules into nearby breast tissue. The cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes in the armpit. The most common types are invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)

• Locally advanced breast cancer – in locally advanced breast cancer, the cancer has spread to other areas nearby, such as the chest (including the skin, muscles and bones of the chest) and lymph nodes

Secondary, metastatic or advanced breast cancer means that the cancer cells have spread from the breast to other areas of the body, such as the bones, liver or lungs

Noticed a change in your breasts?

Book an appointment at our One Stop Breast Clinics to identify if there is a problem

One Stop Breast Clinic MaidstoneOne Stop Breast Clinic Milton Keynes

Kylie's breast cancer story

Common symptoms of breast cancer

Swelling in all or part of the breast

Irritation or dimpling on the skin

Pain in the breast or nipple

Nipple turning inwards (retraction)

Redness or scaliness

Treatments we cover

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

What is non-melanoma skin cancer

Non-melanoma skin cancer develops slowly in the upper layers of the skin. There are two types:

  • Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) – common and easiest to treat and cure
  • Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) – treatment may be less successful if other parts of the body have been affected

Non-melanoma skin cancer usually appears on parts of your body exposed to the sun. That’s generally on the face, neck, bald scalp, arms, back of hands and lower legs. Most non-melanoma skin cancers can be cured.
 

    Causes of non-melanoma skin cancers

    Basal cell carcinomas are caused mainly by exposure to the sun. They are more common in people with fair skin. Other risk factors include:

    • A history of skin cancer
    • A family history of skin cancer
    • Some rare inherited disorders
    • UV light from a sun lamp

    Squamous cell carcinomas are caused by sun exposure, but risk factors also include:

    • A family history of skin cancer
    • A history of skin cancer
    • Drinking too much alcohol
    • Immunosuppressant medicines
    • Injuries, particularly with elderly people
    • Smoking
    • Some rare inherited disorders
    • UV light from a sun lamp

Symptoms of non-melanoma skin cancer

A pink or red lump that doesn’t heal

A scaly area of skin that doesn’t heal

Smooth lump with a pearly appearance

A red or dark coloured spot or sore that doesn’t heal within a month

A red or dark coloured spot or sore that is painful, bleeds or itches

Broken skin that doesn't improve within a month

Red patches on your skin

Having one or more of these symptoms doesn’t mean you have cancer but it’s best to ask your doctor for advice. The sooner your cancer is detected, the better the chances of treating it successfully.

Tests and diagnosis

In most cases, your doctor will be able to give a diagnosis after a physical examination of your skin. They may use a hand-held microscope (or dermatoscope). Sometimes, a biopsy (small sample of skin) may also be taken for analysis.

Treatments we offer

Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer usually involves surgery and/or radiotherapy.
 
 

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

Myeloma is a blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow cells (plasma cells). It can start in more than one place, so it’s sometimes called multiple myeloma. It’s more common in men, and around 5,500 people are diagnosed with myeloma each year in the UK.
 

What is myeloma?

Myeloma can develop anywhere there’s bone marrow such as the spine, pelvis, ribs and skull. Healthy plasma cells produce different antibodies that help to fight various infections. There are normally five different types of antibody. If you have myeloma, the abnormal cells create an abnormal variety of antibody that doesn’t work correctly. It’s sometimes called a paraprotein or monoclonal antibody and multiplies in an uncontrolled way.

Myeloma causes a range of problems. The abnormal cells fill up the bone marrow and affect the normal production of other cells in the blood. This can lead to problems that include anaemia and not being able to fight infection. Too many plasma cells can also damage your bones. These can be painful, thinner, and break more easily.

Causes of myeloma

The cause of most myelomas is not known. Some things make it more likely, such as:

    • A family history of myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
    • A weakened immune system
    • Autoimmune conditions such as lupus
    • Being black (if you’re black you’re twice as likely to get it than white or Asian people)
    • Being over 75
    • Being overweight or obese
    • Exposure to radiation, for example, radiation therapy
    • Genetic conditions such as Gaucher disease
    • HIV

Symptoms of myeloma

Not everyone has symptoms in the early stages of myeloma. As it develops, you may have some warning signs. These include:

Bone pain in your lower back or ribs

Breathlessness

Changes in bowel habits

Extreme tiredness

Feeling very thirsty and sick

Fever and repeated infections

Kidney problems

Loss of appetite

Swelling in your ankles

Unusual bruising of the skin and bleeding

Having these symptoms doesn’t mean you have myeloma, but it’s best to get checked by a doctor. The sooner your cancer is detected, the better the chances of treating it successfully.

Tests and diagnosis

Your doctor will talk to you about your symptoms. If they suspect myeloma, you’ll be referred to a specialist (haematologist). Tests may include:

  • Blood and urine tests to check for certain types of antibodies and proteins
  • Bone marrow sample (biopsy)
  • CT scan
  • FMRI scan
  • X-rays of your bones

Treatment

Treatment of myeloma may include surgery (plasmacytoma removal), chemotherapy, targeted therapies and radiotherapy.

Treatments we offer

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

What is malignant melanoma?

Malignant melanoma is skin cancer. It’s more common in women than men, and your risk also increases as you get older. It develops from cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes make melanin, which gives skin its colour. Melanin also protects us from ultraviolet (UV) radiation which causes sunburn.

The most common type of melanoma is superficial spreading melanoma. When it starts, it spreads across the skin – not down into the lower layers. It is easier to treat if it’s caught early.

Other types include:

    • Nodular melanoma – this develops faster and grows downwards into lower layers of skin if it’s not treated. It usually starts as a new lump on the surface. It can bleed or ooze
    • Lentigo maligna melanoma – usually affects older people who have spent a lot of time outside in the past. It grows slowly over many years. It can form lumps later on
    • Acral lentiginous melanoma – this cancer is rare and usually develops on the palms and soles of darker skinned people
    • Amelanotic melanoma – another rare type. It can sometimes have no colour at all or be very pale

Most people are over 65 when it’s discovered, but it can also affect younger people. Melanoma can also spread to other areas in the body (metastasise).
 

What causes malignant melanoma?

The leading cause is UV radiation from being in the sun or using sunbeds. Other reasons include:

    • A family history of melanoma
    • A rare type of birthmark known as giant congenital melanocytic naevus
    • Exposing your skin to intense periods in the sun – for example, during a holiday
    • Having fair skin with fair or reddish hair so you burn easily
    • Having had melanoma or other cancer in the past – especially breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, some childhood cancers
    • Having reduced immunity
    • HIV
    • Moles – the more moles, the higher the risk
    • Other medical conditions such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and sarcoidosis

What are the symptoms of malignant melanoma?

Your doctor will examine your skin for anything that looks abnormal. They may refer you to a skin specialist. Tests include:

Bleeds

Changes shape or colour

Gets bigger

Is painful or inflamed

Itches

Looks asymmetricle

Having these symptoms doesn’t mean you have malignant melanoma, but it’s best to get them checked by a doctor. The sooner your cancer is detected, the better the chances of treating it successfully.

Tests and diagnosis

Your doctor will examine your skin for anything that looks abnormal. They may refer you to a skin specialist. Tests include:

  • Biopsy – removing all or part of the mole to check for signs of cancer
  • Dermoscopy – looking closely at your skin, using a kind of magnifying glass, and taking photographs to monitor any changes

In some cases, you may also have:

  • Scans including ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET-CT
  • Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy

Treatments we offer

Treatments depend on how advanced the melanoma is. At the early stages, melanoma can be treated with surgery alone. In advanced stages, treatment may involve chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy.
 
 

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

What is lymphoma?

Lymphoma can affect people of any age, including children. In most cases, it can be treated.

Lymphoma happens when B-lymphocytes, white blood cells that help fight infection, multiply abnormally. They gather in the lymph nodes (glands), often in the neck, armpits or groin. They can also collect in lymph nodes in other parts of your body. These abnormal cells stop the body from being able to fight infection.

Causes of lymphoma

No one knows precisely what causes lymphoma. You’re more likely to be affected if:

• A close relative has had lymphoma including Hodgkin lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma
• You have a condition that makes your immune system weaker such as Sjögren’s syndrome, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, coeliac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Crohn’s disease
• You have been prescribed drugs that make your immune system weaker
• You have HIV
• You’ve had cancer treatment including radiation therapy or chemotherapy
• You’ve had the Epstein-Barr virus in the past (which causes glandular fever)

Symptoms of lymphoma

A high temperature (fever)

An itchy rash all over your body

Breathlessness and a cough that doesn't go away

Feeling tired all the time

Having a swollen abdomen (tummy)

Having lots of infections

Sweating at night

Swollen lymph nodes (glands)

Unexplained weight loss

Having one or more of these signs doesn’t mean you have cancer but it’s best to ask your doctor for advice. The sooner your cancer is detected, the better the chances of treating it successfully.

Tests and diagnosis

Your doctor will discuss your symptoms and give you a physical examination to check for swollen lymph nodes. They may suggest waiting a while to see if the swelling goes down. If your symptoms don’t improve, your doctor may refer you to a specialist for further tests including:

  • Blood tests
  • Scans including CT, MRI or PET-CT
  • Biopsy where a tiny sample of tissue is sent for analysis
  • Lumbar puncture
  • X-ray
  • Bone marrow tests

Treatments we offer

Treatments for lymphoma usually involve a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
 
 

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

 

What is skin cancer?

Skin cancer happens when skin cells change into abnormal cells and grow at an uncontrolled rate.

There are two main types of skin cancer: melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancer and the number of cases for both is increasing worldwide.
 

What is melanoma?

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer in the cells that produce pigment – called melanocytes.

  • Melanoma is linked to sun exposure. But it can also affect areas of the body that aren’t often exposed to sun. In very rare cases, it affects the skin lining the nose, mouth and genitals
  • When melanoma cancer cells grow, a mark appears on the skin. It’s often brown or black in colour
  • Melanoma can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver and brain. When cancer spreads it is known as ‘metastatic’ or secondary cancer

 

What are non-malignant melanoma skin cancers?

Non-malignant melanoma skin cancers develop among cells in the upper layers of the skin. The two most common types of non-malignant melanoma skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
Non-malignant melanoma skin cancer can occur anywhere on the skin, though it’s most commonly found on parts of the body that have experienced long-term sun exposure – like the head, face, neck, arms, legs and back of the hands.
 

What are basal cell carcinomas?

Basal cell carcinomas usually stay in one place. However, they can sometimes spread to other nearby areas.
Basal cell carcinomas rarely spread to lymph nodes or other sites in the body.
 

What are squamous cell carcinomas?

Squamous cell carcinomas usually stay in one place. However, they can sometimes spread to other nearby areas.
Some high-risk squamous cell carcinomas have the potential to spread to lymph nodes or distant sites in the body.

Types of skin cancer

Malignant melanoma is skin cancer. It develops from cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes make melanin, which gives skin its colour. Melanin also protects us from ultraviolet (UV) radiation which causes sunburn.

Read more

There are two main types of skin cancer – non-malignant melanoma and melanoma – along with some much rarer types. Non-malignant melanoma is more common, and it’s much less likely to spread.

Read more

Malignant melanoma is skin cancer. It develops from cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes make melanin, which gives skin its colour. Melanin also protects us from ultraviolet (UV) radiation which causes sunburn.

Read more

There are two main types of skin cancer – non-malignant melanoma and melanoma – along with some much rarer types. Non-malignant melanoma is more common, and it’s much less likely to spread.

Read more

Jim's battle with skin cancer

Treatments we cover

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Radiotherapy kills cancer cells. It’s used in the early stages of cancer treatment or after it has started to spread. It can also be used to relieve pain and discomfort from cancer that has spread.

Read more

Chemotherapy is medication that treats your cancer. The drugs kill cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading further.

Read more

Meet our doctors

Everything we do is focused on designing better care for our patients. With a network of 12 specialist oncology treatment centres across the UK, we provide the most up-to-date treatments and technology as standard.

We attract and retain some of the most experienced doctors in the country, who all have a passion for improving patient outcomes and specialise in the treatment of different types of cancer.

Meet our doctors

Only men have a prostate gland. Prostate cancer happens when cells start to grow abnormally. It can grow slowly to begin with no symptoms so it can be difficult to detect.

If prostate cancer is found before it has spread it’s easier to treat. You may be offered a combination of therapies including surgery, radiotherapy (utilising SpaceOAR® Hydrogel) and hormone therapy.

In 2013 there were around 19,000 new cases of prostate cancer.

 

What is the prostate?

The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder, around the urethra, and is about the shape and size of a walnut. It makes prostate fluid, one of the components of semen, and a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  • Prostate cancer happens when abnormal cells in the prostate multiply, causing a tumour
  • These cancerous cells can grow throughout the prostate and through the capsule surrounding the prostate
  • They can spread to other areas including bone and lymph nodes. This is known as secondary prostate cancer

How quickly does prostate cancer progress?

  • Prostate cancer is usually slow growing
  • Most men without symptoms (low grade prostate cancer) can live for many years without it spreading and becoming life-threatening
  • As men live longer, prostate cancer is causing more problems
  • Treatment is often recommended to kill off cancerous cells before they spread
  • Early detection and careful monitoring and/or treatment are important

 

What causes prostate cancer?

The exact cause of prostate cancer isn’t known. However, some factors are known to increase the risk. Prostate cancer is rare before the age of 40, and the risk increases after age 50.

Risk factors also include:

  • Diet and lifestyle
  • A strong family history of prostate cancer
  • Specific genetic conditions, which are also associated with breast cancer and ovarian cancer in women (BRCA mutations)